dictionary grammar primer compound words

YGYDE LANGUAGE INTRODUCTION
March 12, 2013

Ygyde is an oligosynthetic language that crams record number of different meanings into two letters long morphemes. These morphemes are the building blocks of Ygyde. The key concept that defines Ygyde is its prefix table.

The English language is not the best international auxiliary language because it is too ambiguous and too difficult to learn. For example, there are 56 meanings of the verb set, 11 meanings of the adjective set, and 47 meanings of the noun set, not counting subtle variations of these meanings. Ygyde is a constructed language (conlang) and a superb international auxiliary language because it is easy to pronounce (no consonant clusters and easy to pronounce version called Long Ygyde ), easy to understand (two consecutive vowels = the end of one word and the beginning of the next word), and very easy to learn (lots of compound words and lots of morphemes derived from 90 adjectives).

Names of letters and scientific constants are 2 letters long. Names of variables are 4 letters long compound words. Proper nouns are 6 letters long compound words except for names of people and some geographic names, which are 8 letters long. Names of common plants and animals are ordinary compound words. Precise biological names of multicellular plants and animals are 10 letters long. Precise biological names of monocellular plants and animals are 12 letters long.

All other words have odd number of letters. They begin with a vowel which is followed by a consonant, which is followed by a vowel, and so on. Functional vowels are prepositions made of one letter. Numbers, colors, pronouns, common adjectives, common nouns, conjunctions, and the rest of prepositions are 3 letters long. All other words are either 5 or 7 letters long. They are compound words coined by combining a vowel prefix with two or three morphemes. Examples of Ygyde compound words:
aniga (corrupt) = a (adjective) + ni (secret) + ga (money)
ofyby (leavened bread) = o (noun) + fy (foam) + by (food)
igugo (to vaporize) = i (verb) + gu (liquid) + go (gas).

Ygyde compound words are very easy to memorize. To verify this fact, randomly select a dozen compound words from Basic English-Ygyde Dictionary. Spend five minutes memorizing their English roots; for example: memorize "bread" as "foam food," "abacus" as "old number tool," and so on. Spend five minutes memorizing the same words from a language you do not know, for example, Polish language. (In Polish language "bread" is "chleb" and "abacus" is "liczydlo.") Next day find out how many Ygyde words and Polish words you have memorized.

Foreign words follow one of the following Ygyde words: hupi, ugi, huki, uwo, uwu, uwi, hufo, uzo, uzu. These words are necessary to make sure that the foreign words are not interpreted as new Ygyde words. For example, the word bikini means "proper noun optical massive path" in Ygyde.

Ygyde is the Linux of conlangs. It is not protected by copyright laws, so you are free to modify this web page and post it on your web site. The only dictionary of the compound words is the Basic English-Ygyde Dictionary. Ygyde is fun to play with. You can either pick up an English word and try to figure out its Ygyde equivalent, or you can coin a new Ygyde word and try to guess its meaning. If you are serious about learning Ygyde, start with an (unfinished) primer.

Andrew Nowicki invented all the tables of the Ygyde language except preposition table. Patrick Hassel-Zein invented most of the grammar and half of the preposition table.


Although Ygyde text can be written with English glyphs, Ygyde glyphs are preferable because the English glyphs are ambiguous: 0 looks like O. l looks like 1 and I. 5 looks like S. rn looks like m.

Ygyde's alphabet consists of 32 glyphs: 6 vowels a e y o u i, 15 consonants b p d t g k w f z s j c m n l, full stop, 8 digits, octal point, space, and optional glyph h. Capital letters do not exist. Ygyde text can be efficiently coded with 5-bit bytes (2^5=32) in a binary computer file. Ygyde glyphs can be typed with a keyboard which has only 32 keys. Such a simplified keyboard would improve typing speed. If decimal numbers become obsolete and are replaced with octal numbers, glyph oli (octal point) may be used to represent the optional letter h. Ygyde text may begin with a full stop to ensure that it is not read upside-down.

ALPHABET TABLE
English
letter
Ygyde
letter
pronun-
ciation
name of
the letter
English
letter
Ygyde
letter
pronun-
ciation
name of
the letter
English
digit
Ygyde
digit
name of
the digit
a (8)
bus, slum
sa
e
bed, get
te
0
hofa
y
gym
dy
o
all, know
co
1
hofe
u
rule
ju
i
sleepy
fi
2
hofy
b
baby
be
p
lip
po
3
hofo
d
elder
do
t (9)
tie
ta
4
hofu
g
go
ge
k
kin, cook
ku
5
owi
w
vivid
wy
f
fool, fifty
fe
6
hosa
z
zone
zo
s
soon
su
7
hose
j
job
ja
c
church, chin
ce
;
oli
(decimal or octal point)
m
mother
mi
n
no, own
nu
zu
(space)
l
lily, pool
ly
h
hello
(optional glyph)
ho
.
hifu
(full stop)

The Ygyde glyphs listed in the alphabet table are optimized for handwriting. Glyphs (fonts) optimized for printing are wider the bottom than at the top so that upside-down text is easily recognized. Glyphs optimized for dyseidetic subtype of dyslexic population have no exact mirror images.

The order of letters in Ygyde dictionaries: a, e, y, o, u, i, b, p, d, t, g, k, w, f, z, s, j, c, m, n, l, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Ygyde-English dictionaries are divided into 91 chapters. In the first 90 chapters every chapter has the same last morpheme. The last morpheme of the first chapter is ba. The last morpheme of the 90-th chapter is li. Numbers are listed in the last (91-st) chapter.

The phoneme i (sleepy) is longer than other phonemes so that it is not confused with the phoneme y (gym).

If the last letter (phoneme) of Ygyde word is a or i, the last syllable is stressed. If the last letter of Ygyde word is neither a nor i, the syllable preceding the last syllable is stressed (stressed antepenultima). Stressed syllables are underlined: ooo, oooo, ooooo, oooooo, ooooooo. The stressed syllable in Short Ygyde words is the same as in the equivalent Standard Ygyde words. The stress helps distinguish similar words, for example, iby (right) and ibi (along).

Phoneme h (pronounced like h in the word hello) is used to improve word parsing. For example: ogo owyle (8 square meters) sounds like ogowyle, so it should be pronounced as ogo howyle. The phoneme h is also used to distinguish three letter long words in a spoken language. The phoneme h is placed before the three letter long word only if its second phoneme is unvoiced consonant or n: p, t, k, f, s, c, n. For example: color upa (pink) is pronounced as hupa to distinguish it from color uba (white). The phoneme h may be omitted in written Ygyde.

Glyphs not included in the Ygyde's alphabet are coded as two consecutive vowels, two consecutive consonants, octal point followed by a letter, or octal digit followed by a letter. A pair of identical glyphs (e.g., +, -, =) can be coded with one glyph only if the context makes it clear that it means the pair of identical glyphs.

DOUBLE GLYPHS
Ygyde
glyphs
English
glyph
name of
the pair
Ygyde
glyphs
English
glyph
name of
the pair
Ygyde
glyphs
English
glyph
name of
the pair
(
otete
)
odydy
[
omimi
]
onunu
{
omeme
}
onyny
~
ozaza
>
otiti
<
obubu
\
omama
+
obebe
-
opopo
* (multiplication)
ogege
/ (division)
okuku
^ (power)
ojyjy
^2 (second power)
owywy
square root
ofefe
=
ojuju
equals approximately
ojaja
natural exponent
odada
natural logarithm
osisi
integral
ododo
differential
otata
? (question mark)
ozozo
! (exclamation mark)
ofifi
left quotation mark
olyly
right quotation mark
ocece
%
opapa
&
ogogo
monetary unit
osusu
@
osasa
#
omymy
* (asterisk)
owiwi
' (apostrophe)
opupu
, (comma)
olili
: (colon)
ololo
; (semicolon)
okaka
q
otyty
r
olele
h
ofufu
x
okyky
v
owewe
8 (single digit)
ogo
9 (single digit)
ogy
first letters of a phone number, fax number, URL, email, file name, etc.
ococo

Adjectives and verbs are derived from these nouns the same way as from the compound words. For example: ogege = multiplication, egege = multiplicative, igege = to multiply.

EXAMPLES OF FOREIGN GLYPHS
Ygyde
glyphs
Foreign
glyphs
Ygyde
glyphs
Foreign
glyphs
Ygyde
glyphs
Foreign
glyphs
å, Å
á, Á
ä, Ä
æ, Æ
ö, Ö
ü, Ü
é, É
þ, Þ
ð, Ð

Ygyde font and large GIF images of Ygyde glyphs are in this zip file: ygydefonts.zip You can make your own Ygyde font with the help of the large GIF images of Ygyde glyphs.

Sample of Ygyde text

Sample of Ygyde text


The first letter of the word is called prefix. (Letter h is ignored.) All words are divided into classes determined by the prefix and by length of the word.

PREFIX TABLE
prefix length
of word
(number
of letters)
class
vowel
1
Functional vowels are listed in the preposition table.
conso-
nant
2
Names of Ygyde letters and scientific constants, e.g., Π, e, speed of light.
conso-
nant
4
Names of scientific variables (e.g., ordinate, mass, viscosity) are made of one syllable from the adjective table table followed by one syllable from the noun table.
conso-
nant
6
Proper nouns are made of two syllables from the adjective table followed by one syllable from the noun table. If the last syllable is be (plant), bo (animal), py (person = citizen), de (language), ty (country), ga (money = currency), gu (liquid = ocean or lake), gi (pump = geyser or hydrothermal vent), ka (valve = volcano), wa (tape = peninsula), ky (rigid solid = glacier), zu (city), sa (concavity = valley), se (protrusion = mountain), sy (part = province), so (group = archipelago), ju (road = highway), we (sheet = continent), wy (surface = island), mo (fusion = gulf), my (separation = strait), or ni (path = river), the proper noun is a global geographic name. A noun following the proper noun transforms the proper noun into an adjective. If the last syllable is ji (place), the proper noun is a global place, which is a crude (300 km resolution) geographic location. If the last syllable is ca (address), the proper noun is a local address. If the last syllable is zo (building), the proper noun is a short building name. Details are described before the geographic table .
conso-
nant
8
Long names are divided into long geographic names, long building names, and names of people. The first syllable of a long geographic name is arbitrary. The remaining syllables are the same as the syllables of the global geographic names. The first syllable of a long building name is arbitrary. The remaining syllables are the same as the syllables of the short building names. The last syllable of the first name of a person is da (name). The remaining syllables encode geographic coordinates of birth place and year of birth. The last syllable of the last name of a person is py (person). The remaining syllables encode biometric features: skin color, eye color, length of nose and head, protruding cheek bones and brows, prognathism, relative length of fingers, gender, etc.
conso-
nant
10
Multicellular names are precise biological names of multicellular plants and animals.
conso-
nant
12
Monocellular names are precise biological names of monocellular (single cell) organisms and viruses.
a
3
Common adjectives are listed in the adjective table.
a
5
Adjectives are made of letter a followed by one syllable from the adjective table, followed by one syllable from the noun table.
a
7
Adjectives are made of letter a followed by two syllables from the adjective table, followed by one syllable from the noun table.
e
3
Time periods are listed in the time table.
e
5
Adjectives are made of letter e followed by two syllables from the noun table.
e
7
Adjectives are made of letter e followed by one syllable from the adjective table, followed by two syllables from the noun table.
y
3
Common nouns are listed in the noun table.
y
5
Nouns are made of letter y followed by one syllable from the adjective table followed by one syllable from the noun table.
y
7
Nouns are made of letter y followed by two syllables from the adjective table, followed by one syllable from the noun table. If the last syllable is lo (atom), this is the name of a chemical element and it is constructed according to rules explained before the chemical table.
o
3
Numbers are listed in the number table.
o
5
Nouns are made of letter o followed by two syllables from the noun table.
o
7
Nouns are made of letter o followed by one syllable from the adjective table, followed by two syllables from the noun table. If the last syllable is lo (atom), this is a name of a chemical element and it is constructed according to rules explained before the chemical table.
u
3
Colors are listed in the color table.
u
5
Verbs are made of letter u followed by one syllable from the adjective table, followed by one syllable from the noun table.
u
7
Verbs are made of letter u followed by two syllables from the adjective table, followed by one syllable from the noun table.
i
3
Prepositions, pronouns and conjunctions are listed in the preposition table.
i
5
Verbs are made of letter i followed by two syllables listed in the noun table.
i
7
Verbs are made of letter i followed by one syllable from the adjective table, followed by two syllables from the noun table.

If the last morpheme of the compound word is li, and other morphemes are two adjectives, or one adjective, or one noun, li is ignored in the definition of the compound word. Otherwise it means "no meaning" or "absurd."

CONSTANT TABLE
name meaning name meaning
lu double Π, double Ludolphian number = 6.28319 ci e, natural logarithm base = 2.7182
fa γ, Euler-Mascheroni constant = 0.5772 wu Avogadro's number = 6.022X10^23 molecules/mol
go gas constant = 8.314 J/molK le Boltzmann's constant = 1.381X10-23 j/K
bi Planck's constant = 6.626X10^-34 Js ku Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.6699X10-8 W/m^2K^-4
mu speed of light = 2.9979X10^8 m/s si charge of electron = 1.602X10^-19 C
du permittivity of free space = 8.854X10-12 C^2/Nm^2 pa permeability of free space = 4ΠX10^-7 Wb/Am
ki gravitational constant = 6.673X10^-11 Nm^2/kg^2 gi g, acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s^2
lo mass of electron = 9.110X10^-31 kg so mass of proton = 1.673X10^-27 kg
ze mass of neutron = 1.675X10^-27 kg


Names of countries, cities and other major geographic elements are called global geographic names. They are made of 3 syllables (6 letters) and are based on their geographic location. The first syllable represents longitude of the center of the country, city, etc. It is measured east of Greenwich, England, and is expressed in angle degrees. The second syllable represents latitude of the same point. It is measured from the South Pole, rather than from the equator, and is expressed in angle degrees. The resolution of this coordinate system is on the order of 300 kilometers. Most cities and some countries are so small that they are outside the nodes defined by the coordinate system. Their names are based on the closest nodes. Duplicate names are eliminated by preceeding the global geographic name with an adjective (north, south, west, or east). For example, Switzerland is called bycety, but nearby Liechtenstein is called uby bycety. The meaning of the last syllable is explained below.
Last syllable be (plant) describes local plant species.
Last syllable bo (animal) describes local animal species.
Last syllable py (person) describes a citizen.
Last syllable de (language) describes a language.
Last syllable ty (country) describes a country.
Last syllable ga (money) describes currency.
Last syllable gu (liquid) describes an ocean or a lake.
Last syllable gi (pump) describes a geyser or a hydrothermal vent.
Last syllable ka (valve) describes a volcano.
Last syllable wa (tape) describes a peninsula.
Last syllable ky (rigid solid) describes a glacier.
Last syllable ju (road) describes a highway.
Last syllable zu (city) describes a city.
Last syllable sa (concavity) describes a valley.
Last syllable se (protrusion) describes a mountain.
Last syllable sy (part) describes a province or a state.
Last syllable so (group) describes an archipelago.
Last syllable we (sheet) describes a continent.
Last syllable wy (surface) describes an island.
Last syllable my (separation) describes a strait.
Last syllable mo (fusion) describes a gulf.
Last syllable ni (path) describes a river.

Four Ygyde word categories provide geographic location:

  1. Global place is a 6 letter long word that provides geographic location with approximate resolution of 300 km. Its last syllable is ji (place). The same name can be used as a name of a province. Details are explained in the geographic table.

  2. If the global place does not provide sufficient resolution, a local address can be used to improve the resolution to about 3.3 km. The local address is a 6 letter long word that is based on a local coordinate system established within the area defined by a particular global place. Its last syllable is ca (address). The coordinates of the local address are analogous to the global coordinates listed in the geographic table.

  3. If the local address does not provide sufficient resolution, a short building name can be used to improve the resolution to about 37 meters. The short building name is a 6 letter long word that is based on a local coordinate system established within the area defined by a particular local address. Its last syllable is zo (building). The coordinates of the short building name are analogous to the local address coordinates.

  4. If the short building name does not provide sufficient resolution, an arbitrary two-letter syllable is appended to the beginning of the short building name. This 8 letter long word is called long building name.

A detailed global address made of three words: global place, local address, and building name (short or long) is called global address.

This geographic location system is superior to GPS coordinates and postal codes because it uses letters and words that are easier to memorize and easier to pronounce than long rows of numbers.

GEOGRAPHIC TABLE
syllable longitude latitude syllable longitude latitude
ba 0 1 be 4 3
by 8 5 bo 12 7
bu 16 9 bi 20 11
pa 24 13 pe 28 15
py 32 17 po 36 19
pu 40 21 pi 44 23
da 48 25 de 52 27
dy 56 29 do 60 31
du 64 33 di 68 35
ta 72 37 te 76 39
ty 80 41 to 84 43
tu 88 45 ti 92 47
ga 96 49 ge 100 51
gy 104 53 go 108 55
gu 112 57 gi 116 59
ka 120 61 ke 124 63
ky 128 65 ko 132 67
ku 136 69 ki 140 71
wa 144 73 we 148 75
wy 152 77 wo 156 79
wu 160 81 wi 164 83
fa 168 85 fe 172 87
fy 176 89 fo 180 91
fu 184 93 fi 188 95
za 192 97 ze 196 99
zy 200 101 zo 204 103
zu 208 105 zi 212 107
sa 216 109 se 220 111
sy 224 113 so 228 115
su 232 117 si 236 119
ja 240 121 je 244 123
jy 248 125 jo 252 127
ju 256 129 ji 260 131
ca 264 133 ce 268 135
cy 272 137 co 276 139
cu 280 141 ci 284 143
ma 288 145 me 292 147
my 296 149 mo 300 151
mu 304 153 mi 308 155
na 312 157 ne 316 159
ny 320 161 no 324 163
nu 328 165 ni 332 167
la 336 169 le 340 171
ly 344 173 lo 348 175
lu 352 177 li 356 179

Examples: USA = cajoty = "longitude=264 latitude=127 country"
American citizen (from USA) = cajopy = "longitude=264 latitude=127 person"
U.S. dollar = cajoga = "longitude=264 latitude=127 money"


Names of all chemical elements have three morphemes. The first morpheme represents atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus). The middle morpheme describes characteristic property of the chemical element. The last morpheme is always lo (atom). If the prefix (first letter of the word other than letter h) is y, the atomic number is less than 91. If the prefix is o, the atomic number is at least 91.

CHEMICAL TABLE
Stressed syllables are underlined.
word meaning atomic
number
middle
morpheme
word meaning atomic
number
middle
morpheme
ybafylo hydrogen 1 lightweight obabulo protactinium 91 sickness
ybezelo helium 2 idle obemylo uranium 92 separation
ybysilo lithium 3 electric obymalo neptunium 93 detector
ybozalo beryllium 4 strong obotalo plutonium 94 war
ybumalo boron 5 good obugylo americium 95 light
ybipalo carbon 6 alive obikylo curium 96 rigid solid
hypagolo nitrogen 7 atmospheric hopanelo berkelium 97 science
hypekulo oxygen 8 burning hopemylo californium 98 separation
hypytalo fluorine 9 dangerous hopygylo einsteinium 99 light
hypobilo neon 10 optical hopomolo fermium 100 fusion
hypuwelo sodium 11 cellular hopunelo mendelevium 101 science
hypimalo magnesium 12 good hopibulo nobelium 102 sickness
ydasilo aluminum 13 electric odalilo lawrencium 103 no meaning
ydekylo silicon 14 brittle odelilo rutherfordium 104 no meaning
ydykulo phosphorus 15 burning odylilo dubnium 105 no meaning
ydocilo sulfur 16 changing odolilo seaborgium 106 no meaning
ydujilo chlorine 17 clean odulilo bohrium 107 no meaning
ydizelo argon 18 idle odililo hassium 108 no meaning
hytapalo potassium 19 alive hotalilo meitnerium 109 no meaning
hytewalo calcium 20 sticky hotelilo darmstadtium 110 no meaning
hytybilo scandium 21 optical hotylilo roentgenium 111 no meaning
hytozalo titanium 22 strong hotolilo copernicium 112 no meaning
hytudulo vanadium 23 gained hotulilo ununtrium 113 no meaning
hytimylo chromium 24 outer hotililo ununquadium 114 no meaning
ygakylo manganese 25 brittle ogalilo ununpentium 115 no meaning
ygezalo iron 26 strong ogelilo ununhexium 116 no meaning
ygydulo cobalt 27 gained ogylilo ununseptium 117 no meaning
ygomylo nickel 28 outer ogolilo ununoctium 118 no meaning
ygusilo copper 29 electric
ygimylo zinc 30 outer
hykagulo gallium 31 wet
hykekylo germanium 32 brittle
hykybulo arsenic 33 dead
hykosilo selenium 34 electric
hykubylo bromine 35 smelly
hykizelo krypton 36 idle
ywakalo rubidium 37 weak
ywekulo strontium 38 burning
ywybilo yttrium 39 optical
ywodolo zirconium 40 pretty
ywufelo niobium 41 cold
ywidulo molybdenum 42 gained
hyfatolo technetium 43 ephemeral
hyfedulo ruthenium 44 gained
hyfytulo rhodium 45 rich
hyfodolo palladium 46 pretty
hyfusilo silver 47 electric
hyfitalo cadmium 48 dangerous
yzagulo indium 49 wet
yzemylo tin 50 outer
yzytalo antimony 51 dangerous
yzokylo tellurium 52 brittle
yzucylo iodine 53 safe
yzizelo xenon 54 idle
hysakulo caesium 55 burning
hysekilo barium 56 massive
hysynolo lanthanum 57 busy
hysojilo cerium 58 clean
hysuwulo praseodymium 59 chemical
hysilelo neodymium 60 physical
yjatolo promethium 61 ephemeral
yjelelo samarium 62 physical
yjybilo europium 63 optical
yjokelo gadolinium 64 dirty
yjutilo terbium 65 repeating
yjijylo dysprosium 66 sonic
hycadylo holmium 67 middle
hycenelo erbium 68 medical
hycylolo thulium 69 small
hycocilo ytterbium 70 changing
hycutylo lutetium 71 old
hycipilo hafnium 72 similar
ymacylo tantalum 73 safe
ymezalo tungsten 74 strong
ymydulo rhenium 75 gained
ymokilo osmium 76 massive
ymusulo iridium 77 prolonged
ymidolo platinum 78 pretty
hynatulo gold 79 rich
hynegulo mercury 80 wet
hynybulo thallium 81 dead
hynokilo lead 82 massive
hynukylo bismuth 83 brittle
hynitolo polonium 84 ephemeral
ylalolo astatine 85 small
yletalo radon 86 dangerous
ylytolo francium 87 ephemeral
ylosylo radium 88 bad
ylubulo actinium 89 dead
ylizulo thorium 90 inner

Examples: ybafylo = "noun 1 lightweight atom" = hydrogen
abafylo = "adjective 1 lightweight atom" = of hydrogen
ubafylo = "verb 1 lightweight atom" = to make hydrogen

Names of atoms used in chemical formulas are two letters long. If the atomic number is less than 91, the name used in chemical formulas is the same as the first morpheme. Examples: ybafylo (hydrogen) is abbreviated as ba, the chemical formula of water (H2O) is ba2pe. If the atomic number is at least 91, the name used in chemical formulas is made of transposed letters of the first morpheme. For example: obemylo (uranium) is abbreviated as eb. If Ygyde glyphs are used, letters e and y are used as parentheses.


ADJECTIVE TABLE
Stressed letters are underlined.
syllable adjective syllable adjective
ba aba = top be abe = wild
by aby = smelly bo abo = hairy
bu abu = dead bi abi = optical
pa hapa = alive pe hape = happy
py hapy = owned po hapo = caring
pu hapu = hungry pi hapi = similar
da ada = front de ade = different
dy ady = middle do ado = pretty
du adu = gained di adi = political
ta hata = dangerous te hate = slow
ty haty = old to hato = ephemeral
tu hatu = rich, expensive ti hati = repeating
ga aga = lost ge age = stationary
gy agy = simple go ago = atmospheric
gu agu = wet gi agi = geological
ka haka = weak ke hake = dirty
ky haky = brittle ko hako = artistic
ku haku = burning ki haki = massive
wa awa = sticky we awe = cellular (living cell)
wy awy = slippery wo awo = rotating
wu awu = chemical wi awi = genetic
fa hafa = elastic fe hafe = cold
fy hafy = lightweight fo hafo = long
fu hafu = dry fi hafi = feminine
za aza = strong ze aze = idle
zy azy = warm zo azo = tall or deep
zu azu = inner zi azi = narrow
sa hasa = bottom se hase = sharp
sy hasy = bad so haso = big
su hasu = prolonged si hasi = electric
ja aja = sexual je aje = masculine
jy ajy = sonic jo ajo = mobile
ju aju = rear ji aji = clean
ca haca = false, no, not ce hace = religious
cy hacy = safe co haco = legal
cu hacu = new ci haci = changing
ma ama = good me ame = true, yes
my amy = outer mo amo = attractive
mu amu = fast mi ami = mental
na hana = complex ne hane = medical
ny hany = repulsive no hano = busy
nu hanu = short ni hani = secret
la ala = opposite le ale = physical
ly aly = random lo alo = small
lu alu = mathematical li ali = philosophical


TIME TABLE
word meaning word meaning
eba noon (mnemonic hint: aba = top... sun position) ebe weekend (mnemonic hint: abe = wild... time to explore wilderness)
eby May (mnemonic hint: aby = smelly... flowers) ebo age of someone or something (mnemonic hint: abo = hairy... hair loss)
ebu menopause (mnemonic hint: abu = dead) ebi sunrise (mnemonic hint: abi = optical)
hepa now (mnemonic hint: apa = alive) hepe vacation (mnemonic hint: ape = happy)
hepy leisure time (mnemonic hint: apy = owned) hepo until now (mnemonic hint: apo = caring)
hepu February (mnemonic hint: apu = hungry) hepi again (mnemonic hint: api = similar)
eda tomorrow (mnemonic hint: ada = front) ede seldom (mnemonic hint: ade = different)
edy today (mnemonic hint: ady = middle) edo spring (season, mnemonic hint: ado = pretty)
edu soon, in the very near future (mnemonic hint: adu = gained, compare with ega) edi November (mnemonic hint: adi = political... election)
heta night (nocturnal time, mnemonic hint: ata = dangerous, compare with eze) hete late (mnemonic hint: ate = slow)
hety in the past, ago (mnemonic hint: aty = old) heto second (unit of time, mnemonic hint: ato = ephemeral)
hetu already heti often (mnemonic hint: ati = repeating)
ega a moment ago, recently (mnemonic hint: aga = lost, compare with edu) ege always (mnemonic hint: age = stationary)
egy once, a single time (mnemonic hint: agy = simple) ego afternoon (hours 12-18, (mnemonic hint: ago = atmospheric... walk outdoors)
egu July (mnemonic hint: agu = wet) egi era, eon (mnemonic hint: agi = geological)
heka evening (hours 18 to 24, (mnemonic hint: aka = weak... tired) heke March (mnemonic hint: ake = dirty... muddy streets)
heky September (mnemonic hint: aky = brittle... nuts) heko sunset (mnemonic hint: ako = artistic)
heku deadline (mnemonic hint: aku = burning) heki year (mnemonic hint: aki = massive)
ewa still, yet, (mnemonic hint: awa = sticky) ewe childhood (mnemonic hint: awe = cellular)
ewy December (mnemonic hint: awy = slippery... icy roads) ewo 24 hours (mnemonic hint: awo = rotating)
ewu week ewi from now on (mnemonic hint: awi = genetic)
hefa adulthood before retirement (mnemonic hint: afa = elastic) hefe winter (mnemonic hint: afe = cold)
hefy Thursday hefo a long time (mnemonic hint: afo = long)
hefu January (mnemonic hint: afu = dry) hefi menstruation period (mnemonic hint: afi = feminine)
eza morning (hours 6 to 12, mnemonic hint: aza = strong... ready to work) eze night (hours 0-6, mnemonic hint: aze = idle... asleep, compare with heta)
ezy summer (mnemonic hint: azy = warm) ezo Tuesday
ezu Wednesday (mnemonic hint: azu = inner... part of the week) ezi during, while (mnemonic hint: azi = narrow)
hesa midnight (mnemonic hint: asa = bottom... sun position) hese then, at that time, at the same time (mnemonic hint: ase = sharp)
hesy Monday (mnemonic hint: asy = bad) heso century (mnemonic hint: aso = big)
hesu month (mnemonic hint: asu = prolonged) hesi decade
eja puberty (mnemonic hint: aja = sexual) eje June (mnemonic hint: aje = masculine)
ejy April (mnemonic hint: ajy = sonic... singing birds) ejo local time of day (mnemonic hint: ajo = mobile)
eju yesterday (mnemonic hint: aju = rear) eji Saturday (mnemonic hint: aji = clean... cleanup time)
heca never (mnemonic hint: aca = false) hece Sunday (mnemonic hint: ace = religious)
hecy day (diurnal time, mnemonic hint: acy = safe) heco as soon as (mnemonic hint: aco = legal)
hecu in the future (mnemonic hint: acu = new) heci fall, autumn (mnemonic hint: aci = changing... color of leaves)
ema holiday (mnemonic hint: ama = good) eme Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, mnemonic hint: ame = true)
emy Friday (mnemonic hint: amy = outer... part of the week) emo August (mnemonic hint: amo = attractive)
emu early (mnemonic hint: amu = fast) emi hour
hena date (mnemonic hint: ana = complex) hene moment of time (time of day, date, etc.)
heny work time (mnemonic hint: any = repulsive) heno workday (mnemonic hint: ano = busy)
henu moment, very short period of time (mnemonic hint: anu = short) heni October (mnemonic hint: ani = secret)
ela sudden, abrupt, unexpected (mnemonic hint: ala = opposite) ele period of time (mnemonic hint: ale = physical)
ely sometimes (mnemonic hint: aly = random) elo minute (mnemonic hint: alo = small)
elu Unix time (mnemonic hint: alu = mathematical) eli eternity (mnemonic hint: ali = philosophical)

Temporal adjectives are combinations of the functional vowel a + time period:

a ecu = future
a ede = adjective referring to something that seldom occurs
a eli = eternal
a emi = hourly
a ewo = daily
a ewu = weekly
a esu = monthly
a efe = wintry
a eso = centennial
a elu = chronological


NOUN TABLE
syllable noun syllable noun
ba yba = astronomical object (mnemonic hint: ybaba = noun top - astronomical object) be ybe = (biological) plant (mnemonic hint: ybebe = noun wild plant = weed )
by yby = food (mnemonic hint: ybyby = noun smelly food) bo ybo = animal (mnemonic hint: ybobo = noun hairy animal = mammal )
bu ybu = sickness (mnemonic hint: ybubu = noun dead sickness = fatal disease) bi ybi = anatomical part of a multicellular plant (mnemonic hint: ybibi = noun optical - anatomical... = chlorophyll)
pa hypa = anatomical part of a multicellular animal (mnemonic hint: ypapa = noun alive - anatomical...) pe hype = relationship (mnemonic hint: ypepe = noun happy relationship)
py hypy = person (mnemonic hint: ypypy = noun owned person = slave) po hypo = parent (mnemonic hint: ypopo = noun caring parent)
pu hypu = child (son or daughter, mnemonic hint: ypupu = noun hungry child) pi hypi = sibling (mnemonic hint: ypipi = noun similar sibling = identical twin)
da yda = name (mnemonic hint: ydada = noun front name = first name) de yde = language (mnemonic hint: ydede = noun different language = foreign language)
dy ydy = text (mnemonic hint: ydydy = noun middle text = comment) do ydo = picture (mnemonic hint: ydodo = noun pretty picture)
du ydu = knowledge (mnemonic hint: ydudu = noun gained knowledge) di ydi = publication (mnemonic hint: ydidi = noun political publication)
ta hyta = war (mnemonic hint: ytata = noun dangerous war) te hyte = organization (mnemonic hint: ytete = noun slow organization = bureaucracy)
ty hyty = country (mnemonic hint: ytyty = noun old country) to hyto = business (mnemonic hint: ytoto = noun ephemeral business)
tu hytu = manager (mnemonic hint: ytutu = noun rich manager = owner) ti hyti = trade (buying and selling) (mnemonic hint: ytiti = noun repeating trade)
ga yga = money (mnemonic hint: ygaga = noun lost money) ge yge = environment (mnemonic hint: ygege = noun stationary environment = balance, stability)
gy ygy = light, radio waves (mnemonic hint: ygygy = noun simple light = monochromatic light) go ygo = gas (mnemonic hint: ygogo = noun atmospheric gas = air)
gu ygu = liquid (mnemonic hint: ygugu = noun wet liquid) gi ygi = pump (mnemonic hint: ygigi = noun geological pump = geyser)
ka hyka = valve (mnemonic hint: ykaka = noun weak valve = safety valve) ke hyke = soft solid (mnemonic hint: ykeke = noun dirty - soft solid = dung, excrement)
ky hyky = rigid solid (mnemonic hint: ykyky = noun brittle - rigid solid = ceramic) ko hyko = shape (mnemonic hint: ykoko = noun artistic shape = sculpture)
ku hyku = tube (mnemonic hint: ykuku = noun burning tube = chimney, exhaust pipe) ki hyki = rod (mnemonic hint: ykiki = noun massive rod = battering ram)
wa ywa = tape (mnemonic hint: ywawa = noun sticky tape) we ywe = sheet (mnemonic hint: ywewe = noun cellular sheet = cell wall)
wy ywy = surface (mnemonic hint: ywywy = noun slippery surface) wo ywo = disk (mnemonic hint: ywowo = noun rotating disk)
wu ywu = torus (mnemonic hint: ywuwu = noun chemical torus = molecular ring) wi ywi = helix (mnemonic hint: ywiwi = noun genetic helix = DNA)
fa hyfa = ball (mnemonic hint: yfafa = noun elastic ball) fe hyfe = powder (mnemonic hint: yfefe = noun cold powder = snow)
fy hyfy = foam (mnemonic hint: yfyfy = noun lightweight foam) fo hyfo = fiber (mnemonic hint: yfofo = noun long fiber)
fu hyfu = textile (mnemonic hint: yfufu = noun dry textile = towel) fi hyfi = garment (mnemonic hint: yfifi = noun feminine garment = bra)
za yza = container (mnemonic hint: yzaza = noun strong container) ze yze = furniture (mnemonic hint: yzeze = noun idle furniture = bed)
zy yzy = room (building part) (mnemonic hint: yzyzy = noun warm room) zo yzo = building (mnemonic hint: yzozo = noun tall building = tower)
zu yzu = city (mnemonic hint: yzuzu = noun inner city = downtown) zi yzi = hole (mnemonic hint: yzizi = noun narrow hole = slot, chink, crevice)
sa hysa = concavity (mnemonic hint: ysasa = noun bottom concavity = pothole ) se hyse = protrusion (mnemonic hint: ysese = noun sharp protrusion)
sy hysy = part (mnemonic hint: ysysy = noun bad part) so hyso = group (mnemonic hint: ysoso = noun big group)
su hysu = fastener (mnemonic hint: ysusu = noun prolonged fastener) si hysi = tool (mnemonic hint: ysisi = electric tool = noun tool powered by electricity)
ja yja = craftsman (mnemonic hint: yjaja = noun sexual craftsman = prostitute) je yje = machine (mnemonic hint: yjeje = noun masculine machine)
jy yjy = engine (mnemonic hint: yjyjy = noun sonic engine = rocket engine) jo yjo = vehicle (mnemonic hint: yjojo = noun mobile vehicle)
ju yju = road (mnemonic hint: yjuju = noun rear road) ji yji = place (mnemonic hint: yjiji = noun clean place)
ca hyca = address (mnemonic hint: ycaca = noun false address) ce hyce = communication (mnemonic hint: ycece = noun religious communication = prayer)
cy hycy = net (mnemonic hint: ycycy = noun safe net = safety net) co hyco = expert (mnemonic hint: ycoco = noun legal expert = lawyer)
cu hycu = technology (mnemonic hint: ycucu = noun new technology = invention) ci hyci = manipulation, processing (mnemonic hint: ycici = noun changing manipulation)
ma yma = detector (mnemonic hint: ymama = noun good detector = sensitive detector) me yme = recorder (mnemonic hint: ymeme = noun true recorder = high fidelity recorder)
my ymy = separation (mnemonic hint: ymymy = noun outer separation = burst) mo ymo = fusion (mnemonic hint: ymomo = noun attractive fusion)
mu ymu = chip, electronic circuit (mnemonic hint: ymumu = noun fast chip) mi ymi = software (mnemonic hint: ymimi = noun mental software = soul)
na hyna = calculation (mnemonic hint: ynana = noun complex calculation) ne hyne = science (mnemonic hint: ynene = noun medical science)
ny hyny = force (mnemonic hint: ynyny = noun repulsive force) no hyno = work (mnemonic hint: ynono = noun busy work)
nu hynu = distance (mnemonic hint: ynunu = noun short distance = proximity) ni hyni = path, trajectory (mnemonic hint: ynini = noun secret path)
la yla = angle (mnemonic hint: ylala = noun opposite angle) le yle = unit (mnemonic hint: ylele = noun physical unit)
ly yly = number (mnemonic hint: ylyly = noun random number) lo ylo = atom (mnemonic hint: ylolo = noun small atom = hydrogen)
lu ylu = abstraction (mnemonic hint: ylulu = noun mathematical abstraction) li yli = no meaning, absurd (mnemonic hint: ylili = noun philosophical absurd)


If decimal numbers are written with the Ygyde glyphs, the last glyph is oli (decimal or octal point). If octal numbers are written with the Ygyde glyphs, the last glyph is not oli. Scientific notation of octal numbers is written as oli followed by octal fraction, oli and exponent: .octal.fraction.exponent . Scientific notation of decimal numbers is written as oli followed by decimal fraction, oli, exponent and oli: .decimal.fraction.exponent. . If Ygyde glyphs describe decimal numbers, letter a (sa) represents digit 8 and letter t (ty) represents digit 9. Glyph p is used as the minus sign. Decimal numbers have the advantage of being about 10% shorter than octal numbers, but they have two flaws: decimal multiplication table is about 65% bigger than octal multiplication table, and decimal numbers are not compatible with computers. Decimal system is best when Ygyde is used as international auxiliary language. When Ygyde is used as a native language, octal system is better. The octal system does not have digit eight and digit nine. Our Sumerian units of time and medieval calendar go well with the decimal system. The octal system is better suited for a more rational system that includes octal units of time: each day is divided into 64 (8*8) hours, which are divided into 64 minutes, which are divided into 64 seconds. One octal second equals 0.33 decimal (normal) second. (These octal units of time are similar to the French Revolutionary Time.) If only one system (decimal or octal) is used, the other system can be used as names of LISP functions. (LISP is a computer programming language. Its grammar is similar to the grammar of Ygyde.) The average length of the year is 365.2425 days. If the year is divided into 6 months (rather than 12 months), all months except one will have the same number of days (61).

NUMBER TABLE
DECIMAL TABLE OCTAL TABLE
word meaning word meaning word meaning word meaning
oba 10^14 obe 10^13 hopa first hope ordinal numbers (1st, 2nd, 98th)
oby 10^12 obo 10^11 hopy 8^-14 hopo 8^-13
obu 10^10 hopi 10^9 hopu 8^-12 obi 8^-11
oda 10^8 ode 10^7 hota 8^-10 hote 8^-9
ody 10^6 odo 10^5 hoty 8^-8 hoto 8^-7
odu 10^4 hoti 10^3 (mnemonic hint: hot temperature) hotu 8^-6 odi 8^-5
oga 10^2 oge 10 hoka 8^-4 hoke 8^-3
ogy 9 ogo 8 hoky 8^-2 hoko 8^-1
ogu 7 hoki 6 (mnemonic hint: team of 6 hockey players) hoku 1/4 ogi 1/2
owa 5 owe 4 hofa 0 hofe 1
owy 3 owo 2 hofy 2 hofo 3
owu 1 hofi 0 hofu 4 owi 5
oza 1/2 oze 1/4 hosa 6 hose 7
ozy 10^-1 ozo 10^-2 hosy 8 hoso 16
ozu 10^-3 hosi 10^-4 hosu 32 ozi 8^2
oja 10^-5 oje 10^-6 hoca 8^3 hoce 8^4
ojy 10^-7 ojo 10^-8 hocy 8^5 hoco 8^6
oju 10^-9 hoci 10^-10 hocu 8^7 oji 8^8
oma 10^-11 ome 10^-12 hona 8^9 hone 8^10
omy 10^-13 omo 10^-14 hony 8^11 hono 8^12
omu computer program code follows omi infinity honu 8^13 honi 8^14
ola several, a few ole spelling begins olo last olu per, fractions (1/2, 2/3, 1/47)
oly spelling ends oli decimal or octal point

Examples: 20 = owo oge. 2, 10 = owo iwa oge.

Pairs of numbers are used to improve comprehension of spoken language in a noisy environment. If the pair represents decimal number, the first element of the pair is decimal and the second element is its octal equivalent. If the pair represents octal number, the first element of the pair is octal and the second element is its decimal equivalent. Examples:
10^4 = odu = odu hoce
8 = ogo = ogo hosy = hosy ogo = hosy
8^8 = oji = oji oda
8^-14 = hopy = hopy omo
Decimal 9 is associated with octal 16. Decimal 10 is associated with octal 32.


Colors are defined as intensities of their red, green, and blue components. Names of colors are three letters long. The first letter of all color names is u. The second letter is a consonant, and the last letter is a vowel. (The leading letter h is ignored because it is used in spoken Ygyde only.) The red green blue table provides rules that help memorize the color names listed in the color table. The red green blue table uses three new terms: dominant color, second color, and third color. The dominant color is the color component (red, green, or blue) that has greater intensity than the remaining color components. If blue is not the dominant color, it is the third color. Red is the third color only if green and blue (cyan) are the dominant colors.

If the second letter (ignore h) of the color name is b, there is no dominant color, so red, green, and blue components have the same intensities. There are four such colors: uba (white), ubo (gray), ubu (dark gray), and ubi (black).

If the second letter (ignore h) is not b, the last letter describes dominant color(s) and the second letter describes the remaining color components. If you cannot memorize the entire red green blue table, try to memorize vowels associated with the dominant colors and the fact that light colors are associated with consonants listed in the beginning of the alphabet table.

RED GREEN BLUE TABLE
second
letter
(ignore h)
last
letter
dominant color(s)
dominant
color
intensity
second
color
intensity
third
color
intensity
names of colors
b
a
none
 100% (white)
uba
o
 67% (gray)
ubo
u
 33% (dark gray)
ubu
i
 0% (black)
ubi
p
a
or
e
or
y
a=red
e=green
y=blue 
100%
67%
67%
hupa hupe hupy
d
100%
67%
33%
uda ude udy
t
100%
33%
67%
huta hute huty
g
100%
67%
0%
uga uge ugy
k
100%
0%
67%
huka huke huky
w
100%
33%
33%
uwa uwe uwy
f
100%
33%
0%
hufa hufe hufy
z
100%
0%
33%
uza uze uzy
s
100%
0%
0%
husa huse husy
j
67%
33%
33%
uja uje ujy
c
67%
33%
0%
huca huce hucy
m
67%
0%
33%
uma ume umy
n
67%
0%
0%
huna hune huny
l
33%
0%
0%
ula ule uly
s
o
or
u
or
i
o=red+green=yellow
u=green+blue=cyan
i=red+blue=magenta
100%
none 
67%
huso husu husi
j
100%
33%
ujo uju uji
c
100%
0%
huco hucu huci
m
67%
33%
umo umu umi
n
67%
0%
huno hunu huni
l
33%
0%
ulo ulu uli

COLOR TABLE
color
name
color color
name
color
uba 100%red, 100%green, 100%blue (white) ube west (the Ygyde character for "e" points left, ibe = left)
uby east (the Ygyde character for "y" points right, iby = right) ubo 67%red, 67%green, 67%blue (gray)
ubu 33%red, 33%green, 33%blue (dark gray) ubi 0%red, 0%green, 0%blue (black)
hupa 100%red, 67%green, 67%blue (pink) hupe 67%red, 100%green, 67%blue (pale green)
hupy 67%red, 67%green, 100%blue (periwinkle) hupo opaque
hupu south (mnemonic hints: (the Ygyde character for "u" points down, apu = hungry... people in Africa)) hupi indicates that a foreign person name follows this word
uda 100%red, 67%green, 33%blue ude 67%red, 100%green, 33%blue
udy 67%red, 33%green, 100%blue udo colorful (mnemonic hint: ado = pretty)
udu dark udi light (color)
huta 100%red, 33%green, 67%blue (rose) hute 33%red, 100%green, 67%blue
huty 33%red, 67%green, 100%blue (steel blue) huto matte (mnemonic hint: ato = ephemeral)
hutu lustrous (mnemonic hint: atu = rich) huti north (mnemonic hints: the Ygyde character for "i" is somewhat similar to a compass needle, ati = repeating... seasons)
uga 100%red, 67%green, 0%blue (orange) uge 67%red, 100%green, 0%blue
ugy 67%red, 0%green, 100%blue (violet) ugo transparent (mnemonic hint: ago = atmospheric)
ugu translucent (mnemonic hint: agu = wet) ugi indicates that a foreign geographical name follows this word (mnemonic hint: agi = geological)
huka 100%red, 0%green, 67%blue huke 0%red, 100%green, 67%blue (medium spring green)
huky 0%red, 67%green, 100%blue (deep sky blue) huko metallic color (mnemonic hint: ako = artistic)
huku iridescent (mnemonic hint: aku = burning) huki indicates that a foreign name of a material or chemical follows this word
uwa 100%red, 33%green, 33%blue (tomato) uwe 33%red, 100%green, 33%blue
uwy 33%red, 33%green, 100%blue (neon blue) uwo indicates that a foreign verb follows this word
uwu indicates that a foreign religious name follows this word uwi indicates that a foreign name of a species follows this word (mnemonic hint: awi = genetic)
hufa 100%red, 33%green, 0%blue (dark orange) hufe 33%red, 100%green, 0%blue (chartreuse)
hufy 33%red, 0%green, 100%blue hufo indicates that a foreign adjective or adverb follows this word
hufu vivid (mnemonic hint: afu = dry) hufi color (mnemonic hint: afi = feminine)
uza 100%red, 0%green, 33%blue (orange red) uze 0%red, 100%green, 33%blue (spring green)
uzy 0%red, 33%green, 100%blue (royal blue) uzo indicates that a foreign astronomical name follows this word
uzu indicates that other or unknown foreign word follows this word uzi indicates that the following word is a new word, or a word used locally, or a common word that has non-standard meaning because it is used in a narrow technical field
husa 100%red, 0%green, 0%blue (red) huse 0%red, 100%green, 0%blue (green)
husy 0%red, 0%green, 100%blue (blue) huso 100%red, 100%green, 67%blue
husu 67%red, 100%green, 100%blue (light blue) husi 100%red, 67%green, 100%blue (plum)
uja 67%red, 33%green, 33%blue uje 33%red, 67%green, 33%blue
ujy 33%red, 33%green, 67%blue ujo 100%red, 100%green, 33%blue
uju 33%red, 100%green, 100%blue uji 100%red, 33%green, 100%blue
huca 67%red, 33%green, 0%blue (brown) huce 33%red, 67%green, 0%blue
hucy 67%red, 33%green, 0%blue huco 100%red, 100%green, 0%blue (yellow)
hucu 0%red, 100%green, 100%blue (cyan) huci 100%red, 0%green, 100%blue (magenta)
uma 67%red, 0%green, 33%blue ume 0%red, 67%green, 33%blue
umy 0%red, 33%green, 67%blue umo 67%red, 67%green, 33%blue (beige)
umu 33%red, 67%green, 67%blue (cadet blue) umi 67%red, 33%green, 67%blue (orchid)
huna 67%red, 0%green, 0%blue hune 0%red, 67%green, 0%blue
huny 0%red, 0%green, 67%blue huno 67%red, 67%green, 0%blue
hunu 0%red, 67%green, 67%blue huni 67%red, 0%green, 67%blue (purple)
ula 33%red, 0%green, 0%blue ule 0%red, 33%green, 0%blue (dark green)
uly 0%red, 0%green, 33%blue (navy blue) ulo 33%red, 33%green, 0%blue (olive)
ulu 0%red, 33%green, 33%blue (teal) uli 33%red, 0%green, 33%blue

NON-COLOR WORDS OF THE COLOR TABLE
Ygyde
word
meaning Ygyde
word
meaning
ube west (the Ygyde character for "e" points left, ibe = left) uby east (the Ygyde character for "y" points right, iby = right)
hupu south (mnemonic hints: (the Ygyde character for "u" points down, apu = hungry... people in Africa)) huti north (mnemonic hints: the Ygyde character for "i" is somewhat similar to a compass needle, ati = repeating... seasons)
hupi indicates that a foreign person name follows this word ugi indicates that a foreign geographical name follows this word (mnemonic hint: agi = geological)
huki indicates that a foreign name of a material or chemical follows this word uwo indicates that a foreign verb follows this word
uwu indicates that a foreign religious name follows this word uwi indicates that a foreign name of a species follows this word (mnemonic hint: awi = genetic)
hufo indicates that a foreign adjective or adverb follows this word uzo indicates that a foreign astronomical name follows this word
uzu indicates that other or unknown foreign word follows this word uzi indicates that the following word is a new word, or a word used locally, or a common word that has non-standard meaning because it is used in a narrow technical field


TASTES

All words describing tastes have morpheme by (food) and morpheme ma (detector). The human tongue can detect six tastes: sweet, salt, sour, bitter, fat, and umami (taste of protein rich foods). It is possible to design a table of tastes analogous to the red green blue table. The taste table would have one of two values (absent of present) for each of the six tastes. The total number of tastes would be 2^6 = 64.


PREPOSITION TABLE
word meaning word meaning
a explicit genitive on the following word or object (a ubu jon = John's, a ijy = our). e beginning of a comment - note that this Ygyde glyph looks like left parenthesis!
y end of a comment - note that this Ygyde glyph looks like right parenthesis! o explicit plural of the directly following object (yfipy = woman, o yfipy = women)
u joins compound words made of several words (owi u oweko = 5 u "noun sheet shape" = pentagon) i The empty preposition that marks accusative.
hety past tense (mnemonic hint: aty = old) hecu future tense (mnemonic hint: acu = new)
hepa present tense (mnemonic hint: apa = alive)
iba above (at more or less distance), over, up (mnemonic hint: aba = top) ibe left (the Ygyde character for "e" is pointing towards left) used when giving directions and referring to positions
iby right (the Ygyde character for "y" is pointing towards right) used when giving directions and referring to positions ibo side (with reference to a central line, mnemonic hint: hair on one side, abo = hairy)
ibu almost (mnemonic hint: abu = dead) ibi along (mnemonic hint: abi = optical)
hipa transforms the following word into reflexive or emphatic word: myself, itself, herself, yourself, themselves, etc. (mnemonic hint: apa = alive) hipe "you" in singular (mnemonic hint: ape = happy)
hipy "the" (mnemonic hint: apy = owned) hipo about, pertaining, concerning, regarding + subject or object (mnemonic hint: apo = caring)
hipu last word in a general question, to which the answer is expected to be an agreement or disagreement (mnemonic hint: apu = hungry) hipi as (mnemonic hint: api = similar)
ida before in space, after in time (mnemonic hint: ada = front) ide except, minus, without, excluding, apart from (mnemonic hint: ade = different)
idy among, amid, part of (mnemonic hint: ady = middle) ido of + material, shape or color (mnemonic hint: ado = pretty)
idu everything, all + object, every, totally, to full degree (mnemonic hint: adu = gained) idi but (mnemonic hint: adi = political)
hita "you" in plural (mnemonic hint: ata = dangerous) hite from (specifying direction or origin in time or space - the Ygyde character for "e" is pointing towards left), since
hity rest, remainder, other, else (mnemonic hint: aty = old) hito "this", "that", "it", referring to one object of any sex
hitu for, for the benefit of, as a gift to + someone or something (but "for a reason" falls under the definition of "because", "for real" is best expressed only with the word "real") (mnemonic hint: atu = rich) hiti times (referring to repeated actions such as "I have seen this film three times"), (mnemonic hint: ati = repeating)
iga nothing, no + object, to no degree + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: aga = lost) ige some + object, to some degree, partially + verb/adjective
igy also, "and" between phrases, besides, moreover, furthermore (mnemonic hint: agy = simple, compare with hina) igo because, on account of (to combine with "e ... y", mnemonic hint: ago = atmospheric... because of weather)
igu across, through (mnemonic hint: agu = wet) igi in the same place (mnemonic hint: agi = geological)
hika less, fewer + object, to lesser degree + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: aka = weak, compare with iza) hike indicates that the following Ygyde word is certainly wrong (mnemonic hint: ake = dirty, compare with iji and iwu)
hiky to, towards (specifying direction or goal in time or space - the Ygyde character for "y" is pointing towards right), until hiko by + agent, author, builder, artist or similar (mnemonic hint: ako = artistic)
hiku with high probability, likely, 75% certain (possible to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: Brownian movement, aku = burning) hiki many, much + object, much, to a high degree, very + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: aki = massive, compare with hify)
iwa "and", with, together with, both, as well as, plus, including, joining objects - not sentences (mnemonic hint: awa = sticky) iwe what (what time, what person, what place...), who, which, whose (used in relative clauses)
iwy "or" joining objects - not sentences (mnemonic hint: awy = slippery) iwo around (mnemonic hint: awo = rotating)
iwu indicates that the following word may not be correct Ygyde word (compare with hike and iji) iwi then, as a consequence (to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: awi = genetic)
hifa under (in contact with) + object (mnemonic hint: afa = elastic... deforms under weight) hife with low probability, unlikely, 25% certain (possible to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: Brownian movement, afe = cold)
hify few + object, in small degree + verb/adjective, somewhat (mnemonic hint: afy = lightweight, compare with hiki) hifo everybody, everyone (mnemonic hint: afo = long)
hifu last word of an affirmative sentence (mnemonic hint: afu = dry) hifi "she", "her" (mnemonic hint: afi = feminine)
iza more + object, to higher degree + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: aza = strong, compare with hika) ize passive voice of the following verb (mnemonic hint: aze = idle)
izy with medium probability, 50% certain (possible to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: Brownian movement, azy = warm) izo horizontal, at the same elevation or altitude (mnemonic hint: azo = tall or deep)
izu in, inside, into, within + object (mnemonic hint: azu = inner) izi between (in time or space - the following objects are to be joined with iwa) (mnemonic hint: azi = narrow)
hisa below (at more or less distance), beneath, down (mnemonic hint: asa = bottom) hise only (mnemonic hint: ase = sharp)
hisy goodbye (mnemonic hint: asy = bad) hiso most + object, to the most + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: aso = big, compare with ilo)
hisu "they", "these", "them", referring to more than one object of any sex hisi therefore (to combine with "e ... y")
ija on (in contact with), aboard + object (mnemonic hint: aja = sexual) ije "he", "him" (mnemonic hint: aje = masculine)
ijy "we", "us" (mnemonic hint: ajy = sonic) ijo possible (mnemonic hint: ajo = mobile)
iju after in space, behind, next, before in time, previous (mnemonic hint: aju = rear) iji indicates that the following word is correct Ygyde word (mnemonic hint: aji = clean, compare with hike and iwu)
hica impossible (mnemonic hint: aca = false) hice each other, one another (mnemonic hint: ace = religious)
hicy in order to (to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: be safe, acy = safe) hico according to, in conformity with (mnemonic hint: aco = legal)
hicu another (mnemonic hint: acu = new) hici instead of (to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: aci = changing)
ima hello, hi (mnemonic hint: ama = good) ime certain (mnemonic hint: ame = true)
imy out, outside, beyond, past, away, off + object (mnemonic hint: amy = outer) imo in favor of (mnemonic hint: amo = attractive, compare with hiny)
imu "I", "me" (mnemonic hint: amu = fast) imi last word of a question to which the answer is expected to be a more elaborated reply (mnemonic hint: ami = mental)
hina "or" between phrases (mnemonic hint: ana = complex, compare with igy) hine than (to combine with "e ... y", (mnemonic hint: ane = medical)
hiny contrary to, against, anti, versus (mnemonic hint: any = repulsive, compare with imo) hino last word of a suggestion or order (mnemonic hint: ano = busy)
hinu nobody, no-one (mnemonic hint: anu = short) hini unknown, unknown number + object, to unknown degree + verb/adjective, with unknown probability (mnemonic hint: ani = secret)
ila despite, although, notwithstanding (to combine with "e ... y") (mnemonic hint: ala = opposite) ile dimension, times, by (referring to dimensions, such as "the floor is 3 meters by 4 meters") (mnemonic hint: ale = physical)
ily any + object/time/adjective, something, anything (mnemonic hint: aly = random) ilo least + object, to the least + verb/adjective (mnemonic hint: alo = small, compare with hiso)
ilu if (to combine with "e ... y iwi") (mnemonic hint: alu = mathematical) ili preposition for assumption or hypothesis (to combine with "e ... y iwi") (mnemonic hint: ali = philosophical)


SHORT, STANDARD, AND LONG VERSIONS OF YGYDE

There are three versions of Ygyde: Short, Standard, and Long. Standard Ygyde has short, two letter syllables described above. This version of Ygyde is used as a written and spoken language. Some 6 and 7 letters long words of the Standard Ygyde sound like a staccato. Short Ygyde makes them sound better by removing either second identical vowel or second identical consonant. The removed letter cannot be the last letter of the word. The letter can be removed only if letters adjacent to the removed letter are different and the shorter word is easy to pronounce. For example, osotate == osotae and apupipe == apuipe == apupie are correct, but okekebo == okekbo is too difficult to pronounce. The Short Ygyde words follow == mark in the Basic English-Ygyde Dictionary.

Long Ygyde syllables are made of three letters. They are called long syllables. Different speakers of Long Ygyde can use different phonemes in the same place of the same word. For example, vowel a and vowel e are interchangeable. Those who cannot pronounce a can pronounce e and vice versa. Long Ygyde's phonemes are divided into 11 groups; 3 vowels: first vowel is a or e, second vowel is u or o, third vowel is i or y, and 8 consonants: first consonant is b or p, second consonant is d or t, third consonant is g or k, fourth consonant is w or f, fifth consonant is z or s, sixth consonant is j or c, seventh consonant is m or n, and eighth consonant is l or r. Letter r may be pronounced like r in the word car and in many other ways. The remaining letters are pronounced like the Standard Ygyde letters. The total number of the long syllables is the same as the total number of the standard syllables. The Long Ygyde is a spoken only language of those who cannot pronounce some phonemes of the Standard Ygyde. Every standard syllable has a long syllable equivalent. It is possible but inconvenient to make the entire word from Long Ygyde syllables. The best way to use Long Ygyde is to use both Standard Ygyde syllables and Long Ygyde syllables in the same word. For example, if you cannot pronounce phoneme y, you can pronounce the word y-gy-de as ai-zai-de, ei-zei-de, ai-sai-de, and in many other ways. Long Ygyde is also used to change the pronunciation of words that sound so similar that they are difficult to distinguish in a noisy environment. These words sound most distinct when one of them is pronounced as Standard Ygyde and the other is pronounced as Long Ygyde. The Long Ygyde words follow === mark in the Basic English-Ygyde Dictionary.

The following table explains how to translate vowels and syllables from Standard Ygyde to Long Ygyde. If the compound word has any Long Ygyde syllables, its last syllable is stressed to distinguish the word from Short Ygyde words.

TRANSLATION TABLE
Stan-
dard
Ygyde
Long
Ygyde
Stan-
dard
Ygyde
Long
Ygyde
Stan-
dard
Ygyde
Long
Ygyde
Stan-
dard
Ygyde
Long
Ygyde
a
au
e
ua
y
ai
o
ia
u
ui
i
iu
ba
bau
be
bua
by
bai
bo
bia
bu
bui
bi
biu
pa
dau
pe
dua
py
dai
po
dia
pu
dui
pi
diu
da
gau
de
gua
dy
gai
do
gia
du
gui
di
giu
ta
wau
te
wua
ty
wai
to
wia
tu
wui
ti
wiu
ga
zau
ge
zua
gy
zai
go
zia
gu
zui
gi
ziu
ka
jau
ke
jua
ky
jai
ko
jia
ku
jui
ki
jiu
wa
mau
we
mua
wy
mai
wo
mia
wu
mui
wi
miu
fa
lau
fe
lua
fy
lai
fo
lia
fu
lui
fi
liu
za
bla
ze
blu
zy
bli
zo
bal
zu
bul
zi
bil
sa
dla
se
dlu
sy
dli
so
dal
su
dul
si
dil
ja
gla
je
glu
jy
gli
jo
gal
ju
gul
ji
gil
ca
wla
ce
wlu
cy
wli
co
wal
cu
wul
ci
wil
ma
zla
me
zlu
my
zli
mo
zal
mu
zul
mi
zil
na
lal
ne
lul
ny
lil
no
jal
nu
jul
ni
jil
la
mla
le
mlu
ly
mli
lo
mal
lu
mul
li
mil

In a noisy environment the letters of the words may be misunderstood unless they are spelled out. For example, word oje (million) may be spelled out as: ole (spelling begins), to (letter o), jo (letter j), je (letter e), oly (spelling ends).


HALLMARKS OF A GOOD AUXLANG

  1. Are the words easy to pronounce? Are there any consonant clusters?
  2. Is it easy to understand fast speech? Are the boundaries between the words obvious even if you do not know the words?
  3. Is it easy to make compound words? How long are these compound words?
  4. If you do not know a word and do not know its morphemes, can you tell if it is an adjective, a noun, or a verb? Can you tell if it is a compound word?
  5. Are there any mnemonic links between the morphemes that make it easier to memorize the morphemes? Are there any rules that minimize the burden of memorizing the morphemes?
  6. Is it possible to make arbitrarily long and arbitrarily complex sentences that have clear, unambiguous meaning?
  7. Is the auxlang culturally neutral, or does it sound like a relic of colonialism?
  8. Is it terse?
  9. If the vocabulary is borrowed from natural languages, at least 99% of the vocabulary must be borrowed from Mandarin language because Mandarin vocabulary is known to the largest number of people. The rest of the vocabulary must be made of technical terms that are common to many languages, for example, the word computer.


COMPARISON OF PHILOSOPHICAL LANGUAGES

Philosophical languages are conlangs devoid of unnecessary randomness. There are two kinds of philosophical languages: taxonomic and oligosynthetic. Taxonomic languages resemble the Dewey Decimal Classification System used in libraries. The undesirable consequence of this taxonomy is that all words for different vegetables sound similar and may be misunderstood in a noisy environment. Almost all the words of the oligosynthetic languages are compound words defined in such a way that their meanings can often be guessed from the meanings of their morphemes. For example, if you know the meaning of the morphemes "mail" and "man," you can guess the meaning of the compound word "mailman." If the language has more than about 1000 morphemes, it is difficult to memorize the morphemes, so the language is not oligosynthetic.

Ygyde is an oligosynthetic language. It has only one flaw. Some of its compound words are not defined well, which means that it is difficult to guess their meaning. Additional morphemes would eliminate this flaw, but very few of the additional morphemes would be used as often as the existing morphemes. Standard Ygyde has unique ability to cram very large number (180) of different meanings into very short (two letters, consonant-vowel) morphemes made of 21 phonemes.

Kali-sise is also an oligosynthetic language, and the only one that is almost as easy to learn and pronounce as Ygyde. These two languages provide alternative solutions to the same linguistic problems. Compound Kali-sise words are longer than compound Ygyde words because Kali-sise has fewer phonemes (10) and more morphemes (411). Most of these morphemes are borrowed from natural languages to make them easy to remember. The most serious flaw of Kali-sise is poor word parsing. (Those who do not speak fluent Kali-sise cannot easily determine the end of one word and the beginning of the next word of a spoken language.) This flaw can be fixed by placing a vowel prefix in front of every word. For example: prefix i = noun, prefix u = verb, prefix a = adjective, prefix e = proper noun.

Tunu is similar to Kali-sise because it has 4 letter long morphemes. It is a borderline oligosynthetic language because it has more morphemes (1137) than Ygyde and Kali-sise.

Every word of the taxonomic Ro language has a prefix which defines general category of the word. The last vowel of the word defines part of speech. The remaining letters are arbitrary, so it is impossible to guess the meaning of the word. Some words are difficult to pronounce because they have consonant clusters.

Richard K. Harrison knows Ro language well. Here is his opinion:
The vocabulary is outdated, and we do not know how to add modern terms like "computer" and
"microwave oven." The creators died before they reached a definite conclusion about the
meanings of gerunds, the naming of nations, and other matters. Also there is the problem of
words with similar meanings sounding and looking similar, so that the smallest error of
typing or speech changes the meaning of a sentence. Finally, Ro as it was used by its creators
was a crude encoding of English, with idioms that make no sense to non-English-speakers
being translated word by word into Ro, with every grammatical function of English included
when many could have been simplified. Ro's claims to being a priori are false, if you look
deeply. Grammatically, syntactically, semantically, even down to capitalization and
punctuation it is a crude cipher for encoding English.
"Sympathizers have been few. Poverty distressed me. More than once I became discouraged,
and tried to lay down the undertaking for something that would afford at least the necessaries
of life. But the work had hold of me, and would not let go. Often in my dreams or in the waking
hours of the night, columns of words chased each other tumultuously through my brain, and
banished the possibility of sleep, until for relief I was compelled to get up, turn on the
light, and commit to paper the rampant vocables." - Edward P. Foster, creator of Ro, 1913
(posted on 29 October 2002 on alt.language.artificial by Richard K. Harrison)

Alphabet of the oligosynthetic aUI language is made of 31 letters. Every letter has a meaning, so it is a kind of morpheme letter. There is not enough morphemes to define compound words precisely. Pronunciation is difficult because there are consonant clusters and because it takes lots of practice to distinguish short vowels from long vowels. More info about the aUI language.

Lojban is one of the most difficult languages to learn. Some words are difficult to pronounce because they have consonant clusters. There are 1350 Lojban morphemes. The morphemes have at least two forms which are 5 letters long and 4 letters long. Some morphemes also have a 3 letter long form. Compound words, which are called lujvo are unpopular because they are very long.

Loglan is similar to Lojban. Its on-line manuals are superior to on-line Lojban manuals.

There are other, rather obscure philosophical languages. George Dalgarno's Art of Signs (Ars Signorum, 1661) was the first book describing a philosophical language. The latest edition of the book was published in 2001 by Oxford University Press. Athanasius Kircher's book about cryptography and a philosophical language, "Polygraphia Nova," was published in 1663. Bishop John Wilkins described another philosophical language in "An Essay Towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language" in 1688. Dalgarno and Wilkins collaborated for a while, but could not agree on the best way to implement the philosophical language. Dalgarno favored an oligosynthetic language having about 1000 morphemes, while Wilkins choose a taxonomic language having over 4000 morphemes. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz studied Dalgarno's and Wilkins's work and invented foundations of his own philosophical language. Charles Milton Elam described a language named Oz in a small book, "The Case for an A Priori Language." The book was published in 1932 by the Open Sesame Press in Cincinnati, Ohio. Ilomi, Sona, Dunia, and Ododu are immature oligosynthetic languages. Ilomi has better word parsing than other languages. It is nearly impossible to guess what morphemes make up Sona compound words. Fuishiki Okamoto created a taxonomic language called Babm. it is described in a 140 page book published in April of 1962. John Yench invented a language named Idirl. Any word ending in "v" means a part of the body; "k" means it's an extremity. The "th" means it is very low, and the "ah" refers to a part. Idirl is described in a 144 page book, "A Universal Language for Mankind." The book was published in January 2003 by Writers Club Press.

More info about philosophical languages:
- In the land of invented languages, by Arika Okrent (list of auxlangs)
- Opentopia article about constructed languages
- Wikipedia article about international auxiliary languages
- Richard K. Harrison's Bibliography of Planned Languages
- http://www.glossopoiesis.net/Articles/Glossopoiesis/loglangs.html
- http://www.fuchu.or.jp/~d-logic/en/uni.html
-Umberto Eco's "The search for the perfect language" was reprinted by Blackwell Publishers in 1997.
-Auxlang testing